Verbal Inflections

Non-Past Attributive: positive stem
    fau -> fau munu
    katsI -> katsI hitu
*Ikema does not have a separate attributive form like e.g., Uchinaaguchi
Past: positive stem + tai
    fau -> fautai
    yukuu -> yukuutai
    num -> nuntai
Future*: positive stem + gamata
    faugamata
    yukuugamata
    nungamata
*(has a connotation of “must”)
Negative: negative stem + n
    fau -> faan
    yukuu -> yukuun
    nun -> numan
Past Negative: negative stem + ddan
    fau -> faaddan
    yukuu -> yukuuddan
    num -> numaddan
Desiderative: positive stem + busI
    fau -> faubusI
    yukuu -> yukuubusI
    num -> numbusI
Volitional: negative stem + di
    fau -> faadi
    yukuu -> yukuudi
    num -> numadi
Potential: negative stem + idusI
    fau -> faaidusI
    yukuu -> yukuuidusI
    num -> numaidusI
Prohibitive: negative stem + dauri
    fau -> faadauri
    yukuu -> yukuudauri
    num -> numadauri

Conditional: positive stem + tigaa
    fau -> fautigaa
    yukuu -> yukuutigaa
    num -> nuntigaa

Hayashi (2009) describes different verb groups based on their stem and stem changes in negative form. We tested a number of verbs to see which group they belong to. 

カ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
fuku to blow futsI futsItai fukan fukaddan fuki
kaku to write katsI katsItai kakan kakaddan kaki
kiku to listen to tsItsI tsItsItai tsIkan tsIkaddan tsIki
*positive can also be kafu/tsIfu, but negative can never have f-sound*test fufu
ガ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
isogu to hurry isuzI isuzItai isugan isugaddan isugi
nugu to undress nzI nzItai ngan ngaddan nugi
oyogu to swim uuzI uuzItai uugan uugaddan uugi
サ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
naosu     to repair nausI nausItai nauhan nauhaddan naoshi
otosu to drop utasI utasItai utahan utahaddan utashi
watasu to hand over turasI turasItai turahan turahaddan turashi

タ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
matsu to wait matsI matsItai machan machaddan mati
motsu to hold mutsI mutsItai muchan muchaddan muti
tatsu to stand tatsI tatsItai tachan tachaddan tati
*negative can also be matan/mutan/tatan?
バ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
asobu to play asuu asuutai asuban asubaddan asubi
erabu to choose irau irautai iraban irabaddan irabi
tobu to fly tuu tuutai tuban tubaddan tubi
yobu to call out yurau yurautai yuraban yurabaddan yurabi
マ行/ナ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
nomu to drink num nuntai numan numaddan numi
yomu to read yum yuntai yuman yumaddan yumi
shinu to die sIn sIntai sInan sInaddan sini
ラ行 in Standard Japanese
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
heru to decrease hinai hinaitai hinaran hinaraddan hinari
keru to kick kii kiitai kiran kiraddan kiri
noru to ride nuui nuuitai nuuran nuuraddan nuiri
odoru to dance budui buduitai buduran buduraddan buduri
oru to fold bui buitai buran buraddan buri


Vowel final A (vowel change)
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
au to meet ijjau ijjautai ijjaan ijjaddan ijjai
arau to wash arau arautai araan araaddan arai
taberu to eat fau fautai faan faaddan fai


Vowel final B (no vowel change, not in Hayashi?)
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
sorou to gather suruu suruutai suruun suruuddan surui
yasumu to rest yukuu yukuutai yukuun yukuuddan yukui


Vowel final C (uu -> vv change)
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
neru to sleep nyuu nyuutai nivvan nivvaddan nivvi
uru to sell uu uutai vvan vvaddan vvi
vvi-final 
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
kaburu to wear (head) kavvi kavvitai kavvan kavvaddan kavvi


Iregular Verbs
Japanese English non-past past negative negative past imperative
suru do assI assItai hhun hhuddan assI
kuru come fuu fuutai kuun kuuddan tsIki
Hayashi Group 5 (fu -> f, e.g. fuu -> ffan “tsukuru”)
*fuu -> fan (furu) ???
*look for examples
Hayashi Group 7 (i -> z, e.g. ai -> azzyan “iu”)
*look for examples
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